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Wer war eigentlich Schiller?

Zum Leben von Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller wird am 10. November 1759 in Marbach geboren.
Die Familie zieht oft um. Seine Eltern schicken ihn auf eine Militärschule nach Stuttgart. Dort studiert er Jura, später Medizin. Weil an dieser Schule die Beschäftigung mit Literatur verboten ist, liest er heimlich die berühmten Werke der antiken Schriftsteller. Schiller wird Regimentsarzt. Nebenbei schreibt er Gedichte und Theaterstücke. Seine Werke muss er anonym herausgeben. Schiller ist häufig krank. Sein Freiraum wird durch Vorschriften und Verbote sehr stark eingeschränkt. Schließlich flieht er nach Thüringen und gibt seinen Beruf als Arzt auf. Es folgen Aufenthalte in Mannheim, Leipzig, Gohlis und schließlich in Weimar. Er findet zwar Verlage für seine Werke, trotzdem reicht das Geld kaum zum Leben. Am 22. Februar 1790 heiratet er Charlotte von Lengefeld. Friedrich und Charlotte haben vier Kinder. Eine Lungenentzündung führt schließlich am 9. Mai 1805 zu seinem frühen Tod – ein Jahr nachdem er den Wilhelm Tell vollendet hatte.

Schillers Wohnhaus in Weimar

In das Wohnhaus in Weimar ist Friedrich Schiller mit seiner Familie am 29. April 1802 eingezogen. Vorher hatten sie zur Miete in Jena gewohnt, aber in der kleinen Wohnung hatte Schiller keine Ruhe zum Arbeiten. Das neue Haus ließ er vor dem Einzug umbauen: Die Zimmer von Charlotte und den Kindern kamen in die erste und seine Arbeitsräume in die zweite Etage, damit er ungestört schreiben konnte. In diesem Haus ist Schiller drei Jahre später gestorben.

 



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Early Life
Frances Eliza Hodgson was born in 1849 inthe industrial city of Manchester, England. Her father died young. Her mother could not manage the family business and moved with her five children to Tennessee in 1865. The family was poor but Frances was good at writing. She had little formal education but she read and wrote a lot. She earned money for her family by writing stories for ladies’ magazines. After her mother died, she supported her four brothers and sisters. Her stories were a mix of details of the lives of poor working women and romantic plots.

Early Success
In 1873 she married a doctor, Swann Burnett. Their son, Lionel was born in 1874 and the family travelled in Europe for several months. Their son Vivian was born in 1875. The family then returned to America. In 1876 Frances Hodgson Burnett published her first novel, The Lass O’Lowries. It was very popular.

Famous
She wrote both for adults and for children, but her most famous novels were for children: Little Lord Fauntleroy (1886) was based on her son Vivian. Thanks to the novel the family started to travel again to Europe. She bought a house in England and often went there. A Little Princess was published in 1905 and was also successful with the public. Her most well known novel, now considered a classic for children, was The Secret Garden (1911). She based the sick boy Colin on her son Lionel, who was ill with tubercolosis and died at the age of 15 in 1892.

Sadness
After the death of her son, Hodgson Burnett was often depressed. She suffered for much of her life from depression and grew apart from her husband. In 1898 they divorced and she went to her country home in England where she wrote parts of The Secret Garden. The novel shows her interest in Theosophy, a type of religion which believes that all religions have some truth to tell us about a higher spiritual dimension. One aspect of Theosophy is the power and energy of the spirit, and its ability to heal. This is the magic that helps Colin to get better.

Later Life
In 1900 Frances Hodgson Burnett married her stage manager Stephen Townesend who was ten years younger than her. Many of her novels became successful plays in the theatre. The marriage lasted two years and they separated in 1902. From 1898 she lived in Kent, England, but in 1907 she moved back to America. She travelled between the two countries until 1914, when the War forced her to stay on Long Island. For the rest of her life she spent her time writing and with her grandchildren. She died in 1924.

 



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Alain-Fournier, pseudonyme de Henri Alban Fournier, est né le 3 octobre 1886 à La Chapelle-d’Angillon, dans le Cher. Comme François Seurel dans Le Grand Meaulnes, il passe son enfance dans le Centre de la France et ses parents sont instituteurs.

Il poursuit des études littéraires au lycée Lakanal, à Sceaux, près de Paris. C’est là qu’il rencontre Jacques Rivière, homme de lettres, qui devient son meilleur ami et, par la suite, le mari de sa soeur Isabelle. Avec Jacques Rivière il entretient une correspondance presque quotidienne. Les deux amis apprennent ensemble leur métier d’écrivain.

En 1905, le jour de l’Ascension, Alain-Fournier croise une très belle jeune fille à Paris : Yvonne de Quiévrecourt. C’est le premier amour de sa vie et c’est certainement elle qui a inspiré le personnage d’Yvonne de Galais dans le Grand Meaulnes.

En 1909, après son service militaire dans le Gers, au sud-ouest de la France, Alain-Fournier revient à Paris et tient la rubrique littéraire d’un journal. Il rencontre beaucoup d’écrivains de l’époque : Paul Claudel, André Gide, Francis Jammes, Charles Péguy, Marguerite Audoux. Il se passionne pour la musique (Fauré, Debussy et Ravel), pour la peinture (Gauguin, Cézanne) et la sculpture (Camille Claudel et Bourdelle).

En 1912, devenu secrétaire de Claude Casimir-Perier, fils d’un ancien président de la République, il fait la connaissance de la comédienne Pauline Benda, alias Madame Simone, qui devient sa femme.
Alain-Fournier travaille plusieurs années à son roman Le Grand Meaulnes, qui paraît en 1913 et qui manque de peu le Prix Goncourt. Le jeune auteur commence rapidement un deuxième roman, Colombe Blanchet.

En août 1914, l’écrivain est mobilisé comme lieutenant près de Verdun. En septembre de la même année, il est porté disparu. Il est déclaré mort en 1920, mais son corps n’est retrouvé et identifié qu’en 1991. Il a ensuite été enterré à Saint-Rémy-la Calonne, au nord-est de la France.

Son nom figure sur les murs du Panthéon de Paris, dans la liste des écrivains morts au champ d’honneur pendant la guerre 1914-1918.

La légende d’un écrivain qui n’aurait écrit qu’un seul roman a contribué à la gloire d’Alain-Fournier. Cependant, le texte Colombe Blanchet, que Jean Paulhan a mis en forme en 1920, prouve que l’oeuvre d’Alain-Fournier ne s’arrête pas au Grand Meaulnes.



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The Life of Oscar Wilde

Early Life
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was born in Dublin on 16th October 1854. His father was Sir William Wilde, a famous doctor: his patients included Queen Victoria. His mother was Jane Francesca Elgee, a poet and supporter of Irish independence. Wilde had an older brother and a younger sister who died young. He studied at home until he was nine, and then at private school. In 1874 he went to Magdalen College, Oxford and studied Greek classics.

EarlyLife
Oscar Fingal O'FlahertieWills Wilde was born in Dublin on 16th October 1854.
His father was Sir WilliamWilde, a famous doctor: his patients included QueenVictoria.
His mother was Jane Francesca Elgee, a poet and supporter of Irish independence. Wilde had an older brother and a younger sister who died young. He studied at home until he was nine, and then at private school. In 1874 he went to Magdalen College, Oxford and studied Greek classics. 

First Publications
During his studies, Wilde published some poetry. He also wrote articles for magazines and travelled in Europe and America. He became famous for his eccentric lifestyle. In 1878 he graduated from Oxford and went to live in London. He wrote for many magazines and became more famous for his extravagant behaviour and love of aesthetics. Some people started to say that he was immoral.

First Prose Works
In 1888 Wilde published The Happy Prince and other tales, which he wrote for his two children.
His only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray was published in 1891. At the same time he fell in love with Lord Alfred Douglas. From 1893 he considered his marriage finished. Wilde’s first play, Lady Windermere's Fan, opened in February 1892. Playwriting was his greatest talent and in a few years he wrote A Woman of No Importance (1893), An Ideal Husband (1895) and The Importance of Being Earnest (1895).

Trial and Prison
Wilde was famous for his love affairs with men, which were against the law. In 1895 he was arrested and put on trial.
The verdict was guilty. He was sentenced to two years of hard labour. He spent most of the time in Reading, and later wrote The
Ballad of Reading Gaol
. Prison was bad for his health. When he left prison in 1897 he went to Europe, and never returned to Britain.

Final Years
In very bad health, Wilde spent most of his fi nal years in Paris. He was very poor. Constance refused to meet him, but sent him money. She died in 1898 after an operation. He converted to Roman Catholicism a few days before he died, on 30th November 1900. Only a few of his friends stayed with him until the end.

 



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