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Né à Rouen en 1821, Flaubert grandit dans le cadre de l’Hôtel-Dieu de sa ville natale, où son père est médecin-chef : ces années dans le milieu médical le forment à l’observation rigoureuse des phénomènes.
Adolescent, il est un élève doué mais indiscipliné ; il partage l’exaltation romantique des adolescents de province. En 1836, il tombe follement amoureux d’Élisa Schlésinger, la femme d’un éditeur de musique. De dix ans plus âgée que lui, elle lui inspirera l’Éducation sentimentale (1869), dont l’échec lui causera une immense déception. Pour ses études, Flaubert partage sa vie entre Paris et Rouen, mais il est pris d’une maladie nerveuse qui lui provoque des crises d’épilepsie.
En 1849, il termine la rédaction de La Tentation de saint Antoine (première version) qui n’obtient pas de succès. Il va aller vivre à Croisset, aux bords de la Seine. Après quelques voyages, renonçant à la vie mondaine, il se consacre à ses romans dans lesquels, grâce à un travail méticuleux, il observe l’âme humaine sans y mettre ses sentiments personnels. Après avoir écrit Madame Bovary (1857), il travaille à la deuxième version de La Tentation de saint Antoine et il prépare la rédaction de Salammbô (1862), pour laquelle il fait un voyage en Tunisie. En 1874, il publie la troisième version de La tentation de Saint Antoine, qui obtient enfin un certain succès.
Il passe les dix dernières années de sa vie à écrire Bouvard et Pécuchet, qui sera publié posthume le 15 décembre 1880, car Flaubert meurt à Croisset d’une hémorragie cérébrale le 8 mai de cette année-là.

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Early Life
Jane Austen was born on 16th December 1775 in Steventon, a small village in the south of England. Her father was aclergy man and he was a very kind, handsome man. Her mother was beautiful and all the Austen children were very good-looking like their parents.Jane was the seventh of theeight children. She had six brothers but only one sister,Cassandra, who was two yearsolder. The two sisters were great friends.

The Writer
Jane started writing when she was only ten or eleven years old.One of her early books was a comical look at history. It was in the style of a bad historian. She called it The History of England by a Partial Prejudiced and Ignorant Historian. Cassandra drew pictures of the people. One of the funniest is of Henry VIII wearing a red nightcap. They thought it was the right kind of picture for a man who had had six wedding nights! Jane wrote books all her life, but the fi rst of her novels tobe published was Sense and Sensibility in 1811. The book was published without Jane’s name on the cover. The book simply said ‘By a Lady’. At that time, it was still veryunusual for women to publish books. Emma was the first book to have Jane’s name on its cover. Jane’s last twonovels were published after her death.

When Cassandra was goingaway to school, Jane wantedto go too. She was only 6, but she was so angry about being without her sister, that the family agreed she could go.School finished when Jane was only 11, then her father educated her. Their library athome was full of books and Jane loved reading, like all the Austen children
Later Years
After moving to different places in England, in 1809 Janemoved to a cottage in Chawton with her mother and sister.Jane was very happy there. She spent a lot of her timegardening, making wine and writing. She also loved beingan aunt to all her nieces and nephews and they loved her.When she was only 41, Jane fell ill. She died in Cassandra’sarms, on 18th July 1817, in Winchester.

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1585 illustrators from 65 countries sent their artwork to ILUSTRARTE 2012!

The jury, Martin Jarrie (French illustrator and painter), Isidro Ferrer (Spanish, illustrator and designer) Isabelle Vandenabeele (Belge illustrator, winner of Ilustrarte 09), Paolo Canton (Italian editor), João Paulo Cotrim (Portuguese, writer and journalist) decided to award the Ilustrarte Grand Prix 2012 to the italian illustrator Valério Vidali. Two special mentions were awarded to the works of Simone Rea (Italy) and Nina Wehrle and Evelyn Laube (Switzerland).

The exhibition and catalogue will be presented at the Museum of Electricity in Lisbon in January 2012.
The exhibition will then travel to Ghent (Belgium) and other countries.


Valerio Vidali   Simone Rea





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Wer war eigentlich Schiller?

Zum Leben von Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller wird am 10. November 1759 in Marbach geboren.
Die Familie zieht oft um. Seine Eltern schicken ihn auf eine Militärschule nach Stuttgart. Dort studiert er Jura, später Medizin. Weil an dieser Schule die Beschäftigung mit Literatur verboten ist, liest er heimlich die berühmten Werke der antiken Schriftsteller. Schiller wird Regimentsarzt. Nebenbei schreibt er Gedichte und Theaterstücke. Seine Werke muss er anonym herausgeben. Schiller ist häufig krank. Sein Freiraum wird durch Vorschriften und Verbote sehr stark eingeschränkt. Schließlich flieht er nach Thüringen und gibt seinen Beruf als Arzt auf. Es folgen Aufenthalte in Mannheim, Leipzig, Gohlis und schließlich in Weimar. Er findet zwar Verlage für seine Werke, trotzdem reicht das Geld kaum zum Leben. Am 22. Februar 1790 heiratet er Charlotte von Lengefeld. Friedrich und Charlotte haben vier Kinder. Eine Lungenentzündung führt schließlich am 9. Mai 1805 zu seinem frühen Tod – ein Jahr nachdem er den Wilhelm Tell vollendet hatte.

Schillers Wohnhaus in Weimar

In das Wohnhaus in Weimar ist Friedrich Schiller mit seiner Familie am 29. April 1802 eingezogen. Vorher hatten sie zur Miete in Jena gewohnt, aber in der kleinen Wohnung hatte Schiller keine Ruhe zum Arbeiten. Das neue Haus ließ er vor dem Einzug umbauen: Die Zimmer von Charlotte und den Kindern kamen in die erste und seine Arbeitsräume in die zweite Etage, damit er ungestört schreiben konnte. In diesem Haus ist Schiller drei Jahre später gestorben.


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Early Life
Frances Eliza Hodgson was born in 1849 inthe industrial city of Manchester, England. Her father died young. Her mother could not manage the family business and moved with her five children to Tennessee in 1865. The family was poor but Frances was good at writing. She had little formal education but she read and wrote a lot. She earned money for her family by writing stories for ladies’ magazines. After her mother died, she supported her four brothers and sisters. Her stories were a mix of details of the lives of poor working women and romantic plots.

Early Success
In 1873 she married a doctor, Swann Burnett. Their son, Lionel was born in 1874 and the family travelled in Europe for several months. Their son Vivian was born in 1875. The family then returned to America. In 1876 Frances Hodgson Burnett published her first novel, The Lass O’Lowries. It was very popular.

She wrote both for adults and for children, but her most famous novels were for children: Little Lord Fauntleroy (1886) was based on her son Vivian. Thanks to the novel the family started to travel again to Europe. She bought a house in England and often went there. A Little Princess was published in 1905 and was also successful with the public. Her most well known novel, now considered a classic for children, was The Secret Garden (1911). She based the sick boy Colin on her son Lionel, who was ill with tubercolosis and died at the age of 15 in 1892.

After the death of her son, Hodgson Burnett was often depressed. She suffered for much of her life from depression and grew apart from her husband. In 1898 they divorced and she went to her country home in England where she wrote parts of The Secret Garden. The novel shows her interest in Theosophy, a type of religion which believes that all religions have some truth to tell us about a higher spiritual dimension. One aspect of Theosophy is the power and energy of the spirit, and its ability to heal. This is the magic that helps Colin to get better.

Later Life
In 1900 Frances Hodgson Burnett married her stage manager Stephen Townesend who was ten years younger than her. Many of her novels became successful plays in the theatre. The marriage lasted two years and they separated in 1902. From 1898 she lived in Kent, England, but in 1907 she moved back to America. She travelled between the two countries until 1914, when the War forced her to stay on Long Island. For the rest of her life she spent her time writing and with her grandchildren. She died in 1924.


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